Review of Fous de Danse

Everything Dances in its Right Place:

Review of Boris Charmatz & Musée de la Danse’s Fous de Danse

Originally published in Chinese in Art Plus Taiwan, issue of Jun. 2015
by River Lin What some choreographers do, for example, Jérôme Bel, Boris Charmatz, and Xavier Le Roy, is to choreograph your thoughts, mentality, sense, and spectating experience as opposed to showing the dance on stage. It bounds to conceptual art practice while we exactly see how their work has been presented in theatres, museums and public spaces unconventionally and walking across the institution of art. Their work looks at the body as cultural representation and theatre as immaterial art, shifting the boundary of visual and performing arts. Something in between dance and performance art has been revealed in their hands. 

Boris Charmatz, for me, is a philosopher as he not only realises his ‘research’ through choreography but also in the scene of civic society. It appeared to be a cultural movement as Charmatz had unprecedentedly made the ’Manifeste pour un Musée de la danse’ while he was appointed to be the director of the Centre Chorégraphique National de Rennes et de Bretagne in 2009. In the manifesto, he has removed the meaning of words ‘centre’, ‘choreographic’ and ‘national’ in the conventional context of society, politics and art, reconstructing and re-picturing what a national institution for dance could be. With extending the conception of museum, the centre has become the dancing museum (Musée de la Danse) conceptually and physically. 
However, how dance and museum could function in conjunction? This is, in a very ‘contemporary’ way, an imaginative journey for the institutions of dance, museum and the audience in which physically museums presents not merely object-based art, dance performances exist without theatrical framework and audiences participate. Socially, the Dancing Museum opens its door for running workshops, exhibitions, screenings and the residency. Mentally, from Charmatz’s viewpoint, a dancing museum is an immediate museum which exists as soon as the first gesture has been performed. This notion practically takes place, for instance, in the project ‘20 Dancers For The XX Century’, which has been performed in the space of library, museum and park. Audiences circulate around the specific space where twenty dancers separately present short pieces or movements of various choreographic and body languages, such like from Merce Cunningham, Pina Bausch, Charlie Chaplin, Michael Jackson, butoh, contact improvisation, and vogue. It shows the history of the body and dance in the 20th century curatorially as the living archive in a conceptual museum.

Without wall, the Dancing Museum exists in daily life where created by the audience as the participatory art. This May, presented by the Dancing Museum, the two-day festival Fous De Danse featured citizens of Rennes as the festival itself. It consists of two theatre pieces ‘Jours étranges' of Dominique Bagouet and The Show Must Go On of Jerome Bel, and non-stop performances from noon to midnight taking place in the square of Les Champs Libres. 

Different from merely putting ‘amateurs’ on stage, the festival sees ‘everybody’ as the dancer. The one-day-long session started from the warming-up led by Charmatz for people with any level of body conditions from any age, I saw how much people were attracted by the scene and gradually filled the square. From solo performance, duo performance, presentation from PARTS, to Hip-Hop Kids, Birds, the DJ show Giant Soul Train, and the concert of Breton music/ dance which were performed by citizens, each program was brilliantly arranged and connected to one another by following and sensing the audience’s emotional and physical state. Audience members were invited to join and to share the same sky. 
It was a reminder to rethink the meaning and relationship between art and entertainment, in particular while seeing audience members were invited to learn and to perform the dance piece ‘Levée des Conflits’ constructed with 25 movements and led by Charmatz. Compared with dancing with electronic music it might be boring, but actually not at all. That was something magical and unforgettable to experience how the choreographer brilliantly transformed the relationship of the artist and the audience and how how audience members enjoyed themselves in dancing, learning and even watching.

With the collaboration and participation of the audience, Fous De Danse has distinguished itself from any other city festivals, successfully seeing citizens as the need and reason itself. If ‘de-Centre’, ‘de-Choreographic’ and ’de-National’ mean to embrace the public, pushing the boundaries of the institutions of the material and immaterial, definitely what Musée de la Danse doing is valuable to learn from and research into, as it's what national theatres and art institutions of Taiwan need.

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每個人都在/能跳舞— 夏瑪茲與舞蹈博物館「狂熱舞蹈節」

文/林人中 (原文刊載於 Art Plus 2015,4月號)


在法國當代舞蹈光譜中,有些藝術家逆反現代舞的樣貌與常規,將編舞更趨向作為觀念藝術的實踐,相較於讓舞者在台上跳舞,他們更像讓觀眾的思想、感官、即場經驗舞動。劇場、美術館、戶外公共空間是他們展演場,亦同時質問其藝術市場裡空間機制的分配。視劇場與舞蹈為一種朝生暮死藝術的隱喻之所,身體作為文化再現的手段,他們的作品切斷著表演藝術與視覺藝術的邊框,讓舞蹈與行為藝術在當代表演的脈絡中交織,同時我們感受,當代藝術與表演的界線如何在他們的手中消失。傑宏‧貝爾(Jérôme Bel)、波依‧夏瑪茲(Boris Charmatz)與賽維爾.雷.羅伊(Xavier Le Roy)為當前具代表性的幾位,他們的實踐仍持續影響著展演空間機制、觀演關係與經驗甚至藝術史的書寫。

對我來說,夏瑪茲是當中最像哲學家的一位。他的「研究」不僅體現在編舞裡,更走入市民社會與大眾文化場景之中。2009年,夏瑪茲出任法國雷恩國家編舞中心(Centre chorégraphique national de Rennes et de Bretagne)總監,同時發表了一篇「舞蹈博物館」宣言(Manifeste pour un Musée de la danse)。像是進行一種文化運動般,他抹除「國家」、「舞蹈」、「中心」三組字碼在社會、政治與藝術中約定俗成的定義,鬆綁一間國家級機構/場館的文化位置與用途,同時挪用且擴充「博物館」的概念,重新粉刷國家編舞中心的門面,掛牌為「舞蹈博物館」(Musée de la Danse)。 然而,「舞蹈」如何接合「博物館/美術館」,實際上這間舞蹈博物館又是如何運作的?夏瑪茲認為,這是一個舞蹈、博物館與受眾之間,三者對彼此重新想像的過程:就社會空間來說,博物館如何不再只是展示物質性藝術的地方,而舞蹈如何不再只是劇場舞台上的產物,而觀眾又如何從「觀賞」舞蹈與藝術進而為「參與」。這是一項十分「當代」的計畫。就物理空間來說,舞蹈博物館打開大門,舉辦工作坊、駐村、展覽、影片放映、表演等活動(除了專業舞蹈課程外,多數工作坊皆是為兒童與青少年所設計)。就心理空間來說,舞蹈博物館更發生在任何舞台與場館之外,夏瑪茲指出,它是「即時的博物館」(un musée immédiat/an immediate museum)「當表演一展開,它就存在」(it exists as soon as the first gesture has been performed./il existe dès le premier geste posé. )。舉例來說,這概念非常鮮明地呈現於夏瑪茲的作品《為二十世紀跳舞的二十名舞者》(20 Dancers For The XX Century)。它曾在圖書館、公園、美術館中演出。二十位舞者分據特定空間的四處,同時為觀眾呈現二十世紀舞蹈的派別及語彙:如摩斯康寧漢、畢娜鮑許、接觸即興、默劇、舞踏、麥克傑克森及Vogue等。舞者定點表演,觀眾則四處流動。它端呈的不僅是一篇當代舞蹈史,更創造了一座身體作為即場式文件(living archive)的觀念性美術館場景。 夏瑪茲的舞蹈博物館更是參與式的,存在於大眾的日常生活中。與其說把表演帶入公共空間,不如說是民眾共同創造了這無牆的博物館。五月,舞蹈博物館呈現「狂熱舞蹈節」(Fous De Danse),由雷恩市民當家。為期週末二日的藝術節,首演夜在布列塔尼國家劇院( Théâtre National de Bretagne)呈現由素人舞者主演的兩首舞作:多明尼克·巴古葉(Dominique Bagouet)的《奇怪的日子》(Jours étranges)與傑宏·貝爾的《The Show Must Go On》。隔天,則是在雷恩文化中心廣場(Les Champs Libres)從中午到午夜不間斷的戶外舞蹈聯演。 素人跳舞就作品或其美學而言是一件事,但若透過策展意識,形構一系列以常民為主角的跳舞計畫,則是另一件。我原以為《狂熱舞蹈節》的高潮在《The Show Must Go On》當台上二十名素人舞者與台下上百名觀眾唱跳成一片時,但隔日馬拉松式的節目設計,我更多看見夏瑪茲如何成功地實踐舞蹈博物館––以合作與參與(colloboration and participation)作為方法。
 星期天中午,夏瑪茲在廣場中開始聚集民眾—有工作人員、特地來參加的觀眾及路人—他帶領眾人暖身,揭開整日活動序幕。隨著暖身進行,路過的民眾從好奇觀望至紛紛加入,廣場逐漸被人群填滿,當一連串表演陸續展開,從下午一路至傍晚,人潮並未減去,節目的排程搭配市民作息,節奏與轉場安排地恰到好處。節目有專業舞者的單人舞展、雙人舞展、比利時PARTS舞蹈學校的表演,及舞蹈節特別企劃的「Hip-Hop Kids」,由十歲左右及以下的兒童battle演出;「Birds」—由五十位素人舞者在廣場上繞行起舞;長達近兩小時的「靈魂列車」電音DJ秀,民眾在廣場上排出一列通道,只要你想跳舞便隨時加入;又或當舞台上樂團演奏布列塔尼傳統音樂,眾人又開始載歌載舞。 我觀察著觀眾如何全身貫注地欣賞舞蹈演出,同時又自在地加入跳舞的行列。與民同樂的舞蹈,在此不僅止是娛樂路線。其中一段節目,是夏瑪茲帶領觀眾跳他的舞作《Levée des Conflits》。這首舞由跑步、跳躍、擦地、磨蹭等
二十五個日常動作組成,這些動作逐一由夏瑪茲領著廣場近千人示範教學,歷近半小時,接著半小時,是民眾就地表演。原本我憂心這段其實「看起來可以很無聊」的節目如何操作,但除了編舞家的領袖魅力驚人,民眾的行動力更令我大開眼界。他們神情孜然自得地完成,絲毫不扭捏。這景象讓我無從對比,我想著眼前的這一切如果發生在譬如兩廳院廣場,會是何番情景。 
作為一個城市慶典,「狂熱舞蹈節」切實不同於世界各地多如牛毛的城市藝術節,它實踐的本質是如何讓觀眾作為慶典本身。而如果一個「國家編舞中心」可以「去國家」,而屬於所有人稱;「去編舞」,讓舞蹈的實踐走向更多元的當代表演場景;「去中心」,而解散機構與館所的架構,變成一座擁抱當代與民眾的舞蹈博物館。那麼,它無疑值得台灣現有及未來的官方表演場館研究借鏡。